At the time when Rembrandt settled on Jodenbreestraat (7), dozens of people of African descent lived in the area. An important neighbor was Francisca, who lived with several black men, women and children in a basement near the Leper House (2) .
notarial deeds regarding Francisca have been preserved. They were prompted by a
fight in front of the residence of the sugar trader Manuel de Campos on Easter
Sunday, 11 April 1632.
What exactly had happened before the skirmish isnot clear from the documents, but on Easter Sunday a group of five black women and two black men went to the house of De Campos. Rocks were thrown and sticks were brandished, resulting in injury to De Campos’ daughter.
Two days later, Tuesday, 13 April, De Campos had several witnesses to the incident testify before a notary public. The various statements give detailed information about Francesca’s life as seen through the eyes of her neighbors. We learn that she was living with different black men, women and children in a cellar dwelling. Francisca clearly played a pivotal role in the formation of the black community at that time. According to one of the witnesses, Francisca would ‘receive in her house all the black men who come to this city and pair them off with black women.’
The names of several of the inhabitants in her cellar are mentioned, including the women Hester and Dina and a man, Franscisco. Naturally, the statements were intended to discredit Francesca and her company, yet they also show us an interesting picture of a free black woman in the 1630s, who successfully built up a community.
At the time when #Rembrandt settled on Jodenbreestraat (7), dozens of people of African descent lived in the area. An important neighbor was Francisca, who lived with several black men, women and children in a basement near the Leper House (2) #blackamsterdam#easter #1632 pic.twitter.com/oQ7c62lChc
Mixed marriages have been part of European cultures for centuries. Here you’ll find some examples first published in a Twitter thread (december 2019).
In 1593 Bastiaen Pieters from the kingdom of Manicongo in Africa maried the widow Trijn Pieters from Amsterdam.
On the 5th of january 1658 Agnietje Cornelis from Lippstadt (Germany) and Anthoine Zanderts from Angola went to city hall Hall (now the Royal Palace) to registered their marriage in Amsterdam.
In 1761 Augustinus Schut from Ceylon (Sri Lanka) married Aaltje Veld from Amsterdam. In 1752 he was baptized together with the Surinamese Johannes van West and Maria Magdalena in De Nieuwe Kerk at Damsquare.
In 1806 Willemina Balk married Justus Gerardus Swaving in Amsterdam. Willemina was the daughter of a planter in Berbice (Guyana) and a free black woman. In the drawing she prepares a West-Indian meal for painter Christiaan Andriessen.
In 1824 Johannes Charles married Elisabeth van Eijbergen in Rotterdam. Later they moved to Amsterdam. Charles was born in Ghana, sold in to slavery in Suriname, and came as a free servant to the Netherlands.
Lea was born or sold in slavery in Asia, but lived almost 50 years in Amsterdam. She arrived with Jan Parvé and Ida Castelijn from Batavia (Jakarta) in Amsterdam. Most probably in 1690 when Parvé was admiral of the VOC return fleet. In 1691 Lea lived with Ida Castelijn at the Keizersgracht, probably as a servant.
On 21 december 1691 ‘Lea van Balij gewesene slavinne’ (‘former slave’) is baptized in the Westerkerk.
It is not clear how long Lea stayed in the house of the Parvé/Castelijn family, but 17 year later she was living in the Leidse Dwarsstraat. In 1708 she marries Nicolaas Baltus from Ambon (Maluku Islands). Lea is then about 40 years old. A month before their daughter Hester is baptized in the the ‘Nieuwe Kerk’ at Damsquare. Interesting enough the witness Esther Jans van Bantam is also from Indonesia.
On 17 august 1712 daughter Elisabeth is baptized in the same church, again witnessed by (H)Ester Jans.
Nicolaas Baltus died a little more then six years later, in 1719. On the 12th of January Nicolaas was buried at the Karthuizer cemetery. According to the registry the family was living in the Goudsbloemdwarstraat in the Jordaan at that moment.
Almost a year after the dead of her first husband Lea van Bali marries Jan Davidse van den Heuvel from Amsterdam.
1728 is a sad year for Lea. In February, her second husband Jan dies and in July her daughter Hester. The family then lives in Goudsbloemstraat, between Brouwersgracht and the Eerste Bloemdwarsstraat. Jan leaves three children, probably from his first marriage.
Ten years later, 21 march 1738, almost 50 year after her forced migration to Amsterdam, Lea passes away. She is buried at the Noorderkerkhof.